This page includes selected articles from the 2001 issues of Across the Fence Post.
January issue No selected article this issue
New Zealand: Part 1
Another Excursion into the Back of the Book
By Russell White IV, Walworth County Stamp Club and Wisconsin Postal History Society
Russ returns as feature writer to share his in-depth knowledge of back-of-the-book Material His article "The Canadian Caboose" appeared in the February 1998 issue of ATFP. At that rime, Russ was introduced as a prolific writer and editor of Granite Posts, journal of the New Hampshire Postal History Society Also listed were the numerous philatelic specialty organizations of which lie holds membership.
Arguably, Turkey has the longest definitive set produced, with over 110 values in the set. Similarly, some Scandinavian sets spanned 70 years. Within the British Commonwealth, there are several sets that approach both of these records. Most of these are postal fiscals; although the Machin Heads of Great Britain with all of the various color and die changes may now hold most of these records. Most stamps in the British Commonwealth are inscribed "Postage & Revenue," and as such are valid for both duties.
Some of these were separated by Scott in the 1930s and assigned numbers beginning with AR, partly because a large number of the stamps were known primarily for fiscal use. Indeed, to this day, there are often debates whether the stamp was used postally or fiscally. In many cases, the fiscally used are easier to find, and foisted on the unwary collector. This is especially true of Australian and New Zealand postal fiscals.
1866 - the first general revenues
New Zealand has a long philatelic history. General revenue stamps were created in 1866, a scant 11 years after the first postage stamp. Until 1881, stamps were designed specifically for either postal or fiscal use. After that date, most could be used interchangeably
The first revenue stamps were long (tall), had diadem head from the Wyon portrait of Queen Victoria, and the words -STAMP DUTY NEW ZEALAND" (in that order), in a band around the portrait The values were created using key plates (standard design portion of the stamp intended for common Use), with most values being created by overprinting the value on the blank tablets (areas in a stamp design that are set off to contain the denomination) at each end. The first printing in 1866 was on paper watermarked with NZ similar to Scott Wmk. 59 and was imperforate (Figure 1). Values to 10 pounds were printed, and any higher values custom-printed as needed. Several colors or printing types are known for the more commonly used values: 1 penny; 1 shilling; and the 2 shilling, 6 pence.
While used for several years, in most cases, the imperforate stamps were not convenient, so in 1867, many values were released in perforate form (Figure 2). Perforations were generally line-perforated 10 or 12'/z or a combination thereof. On some documents, the perforations got in the way, and were trimmed off.
The values ranged up to 50 pounds and were used until stocks were exhausted, some time after the 1880 issue was printed. While never intended for postal use, several of the common perforated values, the 1-penny, 4 pence, and 1 shilling were so used. As with the postage stamps, the papers changed, and there are 1-. 2- and 4-shilling stamps with the interlaced NZ, and over a dozen various values with the large star (Scott Wmk. No. 6).
Custom values continued to be printed on the 1867 die. These are known in odd amounts. I have one from 1919 in the amount 2,332 pounds (Figure 3). As these were specially printed, I suspect one might even be able to track for whom each one %%as printed, based on the amount if complete records still exist.
To save money, a small 1-penny revenue stamp was introduced in 1878 (Figure 4). Similar in style and size to the postage stamp of 1882 (Scott 61), the band around the portrait reads "STAMP DUTY, ONE PENNY." Printed in both blue and lilac, on paper watermarked NZ, and perforated 12, these stamps saw a limited life, as the "postage and revenue- stamp of 1882 was then used. Few copies exist used past 1886, and most used postally were done so in 1881-83. They were never intended for postal use, but due to their size, several are known on cover.
None of the stamps mentioned so far are Scott listed. The most frequently found catalog covering these stamps is tile British Commonwealth Revenues, by John Barefoot (York, England, 5th ed., 1996, and I believe a sixth is due soon).
In 1881, New Zealand opted to unify postage and revenue stamp usage. Similar to Great Britain and other Commonwealth countries, the legends were changed to read "Postage and Revenue," and new postage stamps were issued in 1882.
In 1880, a set of stamp duty (general revenue) stamps was created. While similar to the original set of the late 1860s, the backgrounds were blockier, and tile tablets were not colored. Also, the band around the portrait now reads "NEW ZEALAND STAMP DUTY." Two main key plates were used: one for values up to 12 shillings, 6 pence; and one for 15 shillings and the 1-pound values. A few of these values duplicated the "postage" stamps and were shortly phased out.
The 1880 set (Scott shows two types – PF1 and PF2; see Figure 5) was initially printed on paper watermarked NZ and perforated 12, all but the 4-, 6- and 8-pence values were available for postage after 1881, but are not listed in Scott. They are, however, listed in the Stanley Gibbons catalog.
As values ran out, the set was reprinted on paper watermarked with NZ and a small star, far apart (Scott Wmk. 62). Scott lists these as AR1 to AR30. Printings made from 1902-28 were done on paper watermarked with NZ and a small star close together (Scott Wmk. 61). Some stamps printed between 1902-15 were perforated 11, 14, 14 1/2 and combinations of 14 and 141/2 (Figure 6).
Perf 11 stamps are believed to only have been printed between 1902-03. Scott lists values to 10 pounds in these sets, and there are numerous varieties with the size of lettering and color changes, wrong color for the value uses, etc. The set was continued until 1931, despite the death of Queen Victoria in 1900.
The set beyond 10 pounds includes 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 75 and then all of the 100s (100, 200...) on up to the 1,000-pound value. These values are generally considered to be revenue usage, although in theory they could have been used postally.
Another Excursion into the Back of the Book
New Zealand: Part 2
BY Russell White. IV. Walworth County Stamp Club and Wisconsin Postal History Society
1931-87 Coat of Arms issue
Original sterling values -
While no new revenue stamps were issued during the reign of Edward VII, there was discussion about the matter in 1911, shortly after George V became king.
In 1915, H.L. Richardson submitted designs for both postage stamps (Scott 145-64, etc.) and revenue stamps. The original sketches showed long stamps with a form factor similar to the previous revenue issues and with a coat of arms. I am guessing that costs of the war, scarcity of metal, etc., may have led to deferring the production of the revenue stamps.
Based upon designs by Richardson, new revenue stamp dies were prepared in 1931. The stamps were of a size similar to those used for the 1926 2- and 3- shilling postage stamps (Scott 182-83) and were created using five different dies or subtypes, one corresponding to each value range. The basic design was simple: a New Zealand coat of arms in the center with the value in tablets above and below the design. Sandwiched between the tablets and the coat of arms were the words "NEW ZEALAND STAMP DUTY."
First type: The first frame type (Figure 1) was used for the original shilling and pence values. The right margin border element is a straight vertical. The 1/3 single-color, the 216, 716 and 12/6 values were issued using this frame type. Incidentally, for those too young to remember, 2/6 is the abbreviation for 2 shillings, 6 pence; 2/- is the abbreviation for 2 shillings, etc.
The 1/3 was later issued in a deeper orange, as its original lemon yellow color resembled the 11/- issued in 1940. After some early confusion in 1939 and 1940, many of the mixed values were overprinted to clarify their intended values. At about the same time, this was also done for the higher pound values.
Second type: The second frame type (value wise) (Figures 2 and 2a) is that used for the overprinted or multicolor shilling and pence values. It was also used for another group to be mentioned later. The values most commonly seen are the 1/3 two-color, 3/6, 5/6, 11/- and 22/- (all overprinted). They were issued in 1940 primarily for fiscal needs but were available for postage, although covers are not common. The side frame is smaller at the top and bottom and intrudes into the coat of arms.
Third type: The third frame type (Figure 3) was used for whole-shilling values. The same general design is used with the left arid right borders having a value tablet in the center. Border margins are wider at the top and bottom than the middle where the value appears. Values using this type of frame include the 4/-, 5/-, 6/-, 7l-, 8/-, 9/-, 10/-, 15/-, 25/-, 30/- and 35/- (with and without overprint). Again, for those not familiar with sterling currency, there were 20 shillings to the pound, hence the gaps. The 1/-, 2,'- and 3/- values were not needed as "regular" postage stamps were issued in these amounts.
Fourth type: A similar frame type (Figures 4 and 4a) was used for the whole-pound values, except that the value tablet has been moved to the top. The center is deflected outwards compared to the tops and bottoms, like the whole-shilling values. Stamps issued with this frame include the 1 to 10-pound values. Scott only lists values to 5 pounds, although wrappers of 6 and 9-pound values indicate that the higher values were occasionally used for postage.
Beginning in 1940 or later, the value was often overprinted on the center of the stamp (like the mixed-shilling values of 1940), for the ^6 to f 10 values.
Fifth type: The fifth frame type (Figure 5) was only used for three values, the 2/101-, 3/10/- and 4/10/-. These values are scarce used postally and expensive mint, and usually bear fiscal cancels. The side borders are vertical with value tablets at the bottom of the borders. These half-pound incremental values were not popular outside of the central offices, as a 2-pound stamp and a 10-shilling stamp could be used.
Over 10-pound values: Stamps valued over 10 pounds (Figure 6) used the chevron-type frame of the multicolor l/3 value (Figure 2). Many are punch canceled and many have the value overprinted. As mentioned before, this was done to avoid confusion, as there is a big difference between 301-and 30 pounds.
Values issued include 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 and even 100-pound amounts (100, 200, etc.) and a 1000 stamp. Most are two colors, with a third where overprinted in black. The set was printed as needed from 1931 to 1958. Additional printings may have been made after 1958 but have not been identified.
There was also a custom-value stamp printed in gold ink, although copies don't always look gold. It is much taller than the rest of the set (the same size as earlier sets), with each custom value overprinted in blue or black. The one I have is for 4,170pounds, a truly prodigious amount.
Paper and watermarks: The first printing of all values was done in 1931 on paper watermarked with a star and NZ (Scott Wmk. 61). Specialists separate the printing into two papers: the first by Cowan (1931), the second by Wiggen-Teape (1936+). Some 1940, and all-later printings, include a multiple NZ and star watermark (Scott Wmk. 253). All printings from 1931 to 1940 are perforated 14. In 1958 the 1-pound value was printed with a compound perforation 14 x 13 1/2 (Scott AR86a). One would think the set might be done, but the need for high-value stamps continued into decimalization.
Decimal values -
1967 issue: The decimal values of the series, listed in Scott as AR102-AR105, were primarily used for postage. In 1967, New Zealand converted from sterling currency to the decimal system. The basic design of the Coat of Arms was carried over from the sterling issues, and the denominations appear in tablets at the top and bottom (Figure 7).
Not only were the designs and dies continued, but so too was the press. Each set of stamps was virtually handcrafted, with sheets singly fed. Perforations were also done using older machines, five sheets at a time. This, in the day and age of web-fed monsters that belch out thousands of sheets an hour!
The series of stamps has only four values, the $4. $6, $8 and $10, and in the 18 years of the decimal issues, there were no fewer than four paper and two perforation varieties. Some of these varieties showed up only in the last days of the issues, so some are difficult to find in dealers' stocks.
The first stamps, those issued in 1967, were line perforated 14 and have the multiple NZ and star watermark sideways. Shortly afterwards, additional stamps were needed, so the Government Printing Office produced another set. For these, and all subsequent issues, they used a comb perforator. The difference is more easily seen in blocks of four, but often perforations near the corners are erratic in the line perforations, so they usually can be distinguished singly as well. The watermark on these stamps is reversed and sometimes referred to as sideways inverted. Had these been the only options, life would have been simple.
1984 reprint: Rumors of the demise of the Coat of Arms postal fiscals began to surface in the late 1960s. They grew stronger in the late 1970s as any fiscal need for stamps had already been phased out by 1970
There was strong belief that the Sea Shells or the Parliament Buildings issues would become the replacement high-value definitives. The $5 value issued in 1979 fueled further speculation, with the philatelic press predicting that the $4 postal fiscal and others imminently would be replaced. But such was not to be the case, and it was later speculated that worn dies were responsible for not producing the new $S as a part of the Coat of Arms issue. Still, no official word was received about other pending high-value definitives.
To solve what appeared to be a short-term need, the $4 Coat of Arms and other values were reprinted and released in July 1984. This new printing had the same watermark orientation as the original line perforated issue, but with the newer comb perforation.
1987 reprint: In 1985, the G.P.O. announced that a $4 definitive would be released as part of the new Native Birds series. Again, the cries of the doomsayers grew, and the demise of the $4 postal fiscal became apparent in June 1986 when the G.P.O. announced new printings of only the $6, $8 and $10 values. The reprinting came as a surprise to the many who had been expecting the complete cessation of the Coat of Arms postal fiscals, plates of which were showing some wear.
The three stamps were printed on an unwatermarked chalky surfaced paper with a faint vertical mesh. A few stamps were printed with the sheets sideways, yielding a faint horizontal mesh, examples of which are exceedingly difficult to find.
Remaining stock of the $4 postal fiscal was available until sold out, the value having been replaced with the Native Birds series stamp. The three 1987 reprints were also available until sold out. The $10 Native Birds stamp appeared in 1989, and the $10 Coat of Arms type ended shortly thereafter. The $6 sold out - shortly after, and the $8 apparently ran out in late 1990, the last of a long line of an otherwise unremarkable set.
Emergency values -
Two additional values are worthy of note. They were never valid for revenue use, but were emergency issues used solely for postage. The first is the "1'fi d. Postage" black over-print on carmine background (Figure 8). The stamps were issued in 1950 and again in 1953 to meet first-class and then second-class (Christmas card) postage when supplies of regular definitives ran out. Numerous covers exist with these stamps. A large number were used in multiples because surface rate to the United States was 3 pence in 1950 and 6 pence in 1953.
Another emergency hit during the 1964 Christmas season, so the Coat of Arms issue was again pressed into service, overprinted "7° Postage" in black on the reddish background (Figure 9).
Several catalogs provide more comprehensive information about these issues than does Scott's. The Stanley Gibbons British Common-wealth Stamp Catalogue provides more detail. Its Two Reigns catalog for New Zealand provides more detail yet. The reference that provides the most detail is the Campbell Paterson Catalogue of New Zealand Stamps. The Barefoot & Hall British Commonwealth Revenues catalog lists the sterling issues but does not list the decimal issues, noting that the), were primarily for postal use.
I strongly urge you to check those stamps sitting in the back of your book; you just might find something a bit special.
Collecting U.S. Self-Adhesives
By Gregg Greenwald, Central Wisconsin Stamp Club
The majority of stamps released by the U. S. Postal Service lately are self-adhesives. While very convenient for the public to use, stamp collectors face a special challenge collecting unused examples. Unlike their gummed counterparts, self-adhesives may not provide a convenient way to separate a stamp from the one next to it.
What is the best way to collect these issues? Can one formula be applied to all self-adhesives? The definitive answer is "it depends." Let's take a look at several recent self-adhesive issues and their issue formats. Different approaches need to be taken for each of the different formats.
One final note before starting: The opinions expressed here are just that, opinions. Collectors are free to collect however they wish because every collector is unique. Do not construe this article as the final word.
A question of borders
One method of collecting self-adhesives is to peel away the stamps adjoining the single or block wanted and then trims the resulting liner paper. The question arises as to how wide the resulting border should be.
Collectors who use commercial album pages will find that the space allotted for a self-adhesive stamp is the same as for a gummed stamp. In other words, little or nothing. Here, trim the liner paper tightly so the stamp fits nicely within its allotted space. Be careful not to clip any of the teeth on the stamp.
If you make your own album pages, the sky (or the full width of the adjoining stamps removed) is the limit. The liner paper, however, should not take over the presentation of the stamp on the album page. A quarter inch or five millimeters might be a reasonable amount of border. When hinges - are used, a slightly larger border on the top might be warranted.
In the beginning, there were convertible booklets
The first mass-produced self-adhesives were definitives issued in convertible booklet form. They are called convertible booklets because consumers can peel away one or two strips of paper and fold the flat pane into a convenient booklet form. The recently issued non-denominated Love convertible booklet of 20 is an example.
The important feature here is that individual stamps cannot easily be separated from one another. The die cuts that separate the stamps themselves do not extend into the liner paper. How should an individual stamp from the pane be collected? The only alternative is to remove the stamps around the one to be saved and then trim the liner paper surrounding the stamp.
Two-sided convertible booklets
The same rules apply here as with conventional convertible booklets. Consider removing the stamps on the backside of the panes as well as the stamps around the one to be saved. The recently issued non-denominated Four Flowers convertible booklet of 20 is an example.
Panes with die cutting through the liner
Starting with the Hanukkah issue of 1986, regular panes were produced where the die cutting between the stamps extends through the liner paper. This allows panes to be separated into smaller units. The recently issued 34-cent Roy Wilkins is an example.
Collectors have two ways to collect these issues. The first, like the convertible booklets mentioned above, is to remove the stamps around the one (or multiple, in the case of a plate number block) wanted. Then, trim the liner paper away.
One point worth considering. Priority and Express mail stamps have high face values that collectors may not be able to use for normal mailings. Buying extras just to have a stamp with a border may not be an option.
An alternative is to tear the stamps apart using the provided die cuts. To avoid damage to the teeth of the stamps, only fold the pane back, or away, from the front of the stamps (liner paper to liner paper). This breaks down the fibers of the liner paper, making it easier to tear. Do this several times on a hard surface. Then laying the pane flat one more time, separate the stamps along the folded die cuts, just like a gummed pane. Folding the pane forward will cause the die-cut teeth to bend upward, and straightening them back down is impossible. Patience and practice is key here. The result will be a collectible stamp that will have a minimal amount of liner paper showing through the die cuts.
Se-tenants may have a special consideration depending upon your collecting format. With self-adhesives, the stamps themselves are really not joined because the die cuts effectively separate the stamps. The joining factor is actually the liner paper. When collecting pairs of the new Apple and Orange convertible booklet, treat the pair as one and remove all of the stamps around them.
Se-tenant panes with die cutting through the liner paper may pose a challenge for those wishing to save 20 individual stamps, each with a border. It is possible, but multiple panes are required. For the recently issued American Illustrators, four panes are needed to retain the 20 individual stamps with borders.
Two formats of self-adhesive coils have been produced. One is from coil rolls of 100 where the stamps are tight against each other. The other format comes from coils of 3,000 or 10,000 where a gap exists between the stamps. The recently issued non-denominated Four Flowers is an example of the former. The recently issued horizoritally oriented 34-cent Statue of Liberty is an example of the latter.
In the case of coils of 100, a stamp from each side of the stamp or stamps wanted should be removed. Then, simply trim the liner paper. On the gapped coils, it is not necessary to remove the surrounding stamps as the gap can serve the purpose of the border. If a wider border is desired, the surrounding stamps can be removed. I always remove the surrounding stamps on gapped coils.
You have removed the self-adhesive stamps from around the one to be saved, and your fingertips are covered with stamps! What now? Perhaps some planning is in order.
The trick is to find a suitable medium to transplant the excess stamps on to. Something like the existing liner paper that the stamps just came from would be ideal. Some scrounging might be in order to find discarded label liners at work or at home. Discarded liners from convertible booklets found in the post office lobby work very well. Essentially, anything that used to have a self-adhesive label on it will do. Remember to always stick the trans-planted self-adhesive stamps on the shiny side of the liner.
Now that all of the excess self-adhesives are transplanted, what can a collector do with the scrap? Friends and co-workers make a reasonable outlet. Batch the excess into multiples of five to avoid having to exchange pennies. Multiples of 15 seem to work the best. Let it be known that you have self-adhesive stamps available (postal customers usually will avoid purchasing gummed stamps at all costs) and suggest buying from you as an alternative to going to the post office and standing in line. Hopefully, the convenience factor will sway them. •
Beyond Manned Space Flight By JG
Beyond Manned Space Flight
Space flight began in the myths of human beings during our earliest history, not with the development of the manned rocket. The gods all flew and the angels flew. Most of the gods were born with the works of Homer; the angels just seem to have been around forever. This short article focuses on those gods and angels that are portrayed on postage stamps.
Zeus in Greek mythology was the ruler of the sky and of the Olympian gods. In Roman mythology, he was called "Jupiter." He did not create either mortals or the other gods. He was just the main boss and protector of the known earth.
Zeus did not have visible wings, but he seemed to get around at about the speed of light. As lord of the sky, he had thunderbolts at his disposal and he used them frequently to enforce his will. His bird was the eagle; his tree was the oak. Zeus did a lot of fooling around with other female gods and with mortal women. His wife (and sister), Hera, knew about most of his indiscretions. Zeus' image is represented in sculptural works as a kingly, bearded figure.
Zeus appears on about 20 stamps.
Athena was one of the most important of the Greek gods. (Her Roman name was "Minerva. ") She wasn't really born. Instead, she sprang from Zeus' head, fully-grown, fully clothed, and fully armed. Like her "father" she had no wings, but traveled at warp speed to any destination she chose.
As goddess of war, she supported the Greeks and destroyed Troy. She also was responsible for the destruction of the Greek ships returning from Troy. Basically, she was a mean lady. Her bird was the owl and she carried its picture on her shield.
Athena's major temple was the Parthenon in Athens - given to her by the people of Athens for her gift of the olive tree. She was some what disposed to hanging about the Parthenon watching Athens and meddling in the business of the city's citizens.
Athena is honored on more than 25 stamps worldwide.
Iris was Homer's first messenger of the gods. She had massive wings and flew wherever directed by Zeus or Hera. Her primary mission was to carry messages to humans. Her speed was noted as "the speed of the wind."
Iris also was the goddess of the rainbow. She flew across the sky with a halo of light around her head and with a rainbow in her wake. But she also could travel to the bottom of the sea or the depths of the underworld.
Iris appears on about 20 stamps worldwide.
Eros was the god of love; his Roman counterpart was "Cupid." He was mostly depicted as slender and beautiful with small wings - often with his eyes covered to symbolize the blindness of love. In early mythology, he was represented as one of the forces of nature and the embodiment of harmony and creative power. Sometimes he carried a flower, but more commonly he carried a silver bow with arrows. The arrows, of course, carried desire into the hearts of gods and mortals.
Eros is shown on about 10 stamps worldwide.
Hermes (Roman "Mercury") was Homer's second messenger of the gods. Basically, he ran important errands for Zeus. He was the son of Zeus and Maia (Hera knew about Maia).
Hermes flew by means of small wings on his heels and on his hat. He also carried a caduceus that he used as a magic wand. Hermes conducted the souls of the dead to the underworld, or wherever. As god of commerce, he protected the traders and the animal herds. As the deity of athletes, he protected gymnasiums. He also was believed to be responsible for good luck and wealth. Hermes additionally was considered a dangerous foe and sometimes a thief.
In architecture, he was shown as a mature, athletic, beardless man. In art, he was mostly shown as a nude and well-built young man.
His job as messenger has carried him into the stamp field. Hermes can be found on hundreds of stamps worldwide. As with the other gods, he principally is known for stamps in the Greece region. His messenger role, however, has carried over into the philatelic world where he is represented as a carrier of the mail - especially quick-delivery mail. As "Mercury," he gave his name to the United States' first man-in-space program.
Apollo was the son of Zeus (again) and Leto. In Homer's stories, he was a god of prophecy. Also, he sometimes gave the gift of prophecy to mortals.
Apollo was an accomplished musician and played his lyre for the other gods. He was a master archer and a fleet-footed athlete. Apollo gave his name to the United States' man-on-the-moon project.
Apollo was a special protector of young men. He also was the god of agriculture and cattle, as well as the god of light and truth. Apollo taught humans the art of healing. Like the other gods, Apollo could be stern and cruel. At one time, he kidnapped and raped a young Athens princess - like father, like son.
It is said that he was the first victor in the ancient Olympics. As such, his picture on postage stamps commonly shows him as a discus thrower.
About 20 stamps show Apollo.
Angels (Greek "messenger") are the special messengers of God, or the intermediaries between God and humans. Almost all religions are concerned with the relationship between humans and some supreme being, and angels fulfill most of this communication need. In ancient Greek religion, in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, this relationship is thought to involve angels. These divine messengers are sent by the gods to instruct, inform, or command the humans.
An angel can function as a protector, a heavenly warrior, or even a cosmic power. Additionally, angels can be almost demonic. Angels, therefore, can be broadly defined as personified powers mediating between the divine and the human.
On postage stamps, angels can appear as cute, angry, mean, solemn, stuffy, reserved, very proper, and numerous other postures. They are especially numerous in the role of "peace and good will" around the Christmas holidays.
Angels appear on stamps of most countries of the world. Angel stamps, therefore, number into the many hundreds.
Daedalus and Icarus were father and son in ancient Athens. They weren't gods of any kind and flew only because of the father's special gifts.
Daedalus was a talented and intelligent craftsman. He also was a troublemaker of sorts. He pushed his apprentice, Talos, from the top of the Acropolis and was convicted of murder (it is said that Athena saved Talos). But the conviction stood, and Daedalus and Icarus were exiled to Crete.
On Crete, Daedalus got into trouble for fooling around with King Minos' wife. Daedalus and son were banished to the labyrinth to become another meal for the Minotaur (a beast that was half man and half bull). Daedalus' talents helped him to fashion wings of wax and bird feathers for himself and Icarus. The main intent was to leap off the labyrinth wall and fly to safety on a nearby island. Daedalus warned his son not to fly too high or the sun might melt his feathered wings. Being a typical son, Icarus flew too high, lost his feathers, and crashed into the Icarian Sea - dead, of course, on impact. Daedalus flew on to safety on another island.
Daedalus and Icarus appear on more than 50 stamps worldwide. Because of his successful flight, Daedalus is sometimes depicted as a symbol of aviation progress and safety. •
Much of the information presented here, and more, can be found in Microsoft's online encyclopedia, Encarta.
July/August issue No column this issue
U.S. REVENUES -
U.S. REVENUES -
What Inquiring Minds Might Want to Know: Part 1
By ATFP Editor, Karen Weigt and Mike Lybarger, Badger Stamp Club
Gregg Greenwald has written another great feature article for ATFP. This time, the subject is the U.S. first-issue revenue stamps. Knowing practically nothing about revenues, I spent a bit of time this summer perusing my clippings file for some background. While I learned a lot, many questions remained unanswered, with most relating to the historical, political and social aspects of revenues.
To satisfy my curiosity, I posed these questions to Mike Lybarger, retired professor of history and political science, who automatically considers stamps from the viewpoint of his academic credentials. I also searched the Internet.
What follows is an overview of my venture into a study of revenues.
Purpose of revenue stamps
Ron Lesher, noted authority of revenues, provides the most thorough listing of purposes for these stamps. He states that they may serve to:
Show the payment of a tax
Show that an object is legally exempt from paying a tax
Show that a fee has been paid for a government service
Show that a fee has been paid to allow an individual or corporation to engage in a permitted activity or occupation
Guarantee that the proper taxes will be paid
Documentary versus proprietary
The two major types of revenues are documentary and proprietary stamps.
Documentary - These stamps represent payment of a tax or fee on certain documents such as checks, contracts, wills and many other forms of legal papers. For instance, if an individual obtained a loan, he was required to buy a tax stamp and affix it to the document. General documentary stamps are the most commonly encountered form of revenue stamps and were still used on various documents through December 31, 1967.
Q: It seems strange that there was a time in our history when a bank check was taxed and it was required that a revenue stamp be affixed to it. Was the tax only for checks issued by banks in the form of a cashier's check?
A: Mike replied that all bank checks required the stamps, including those written from personal accounts. In fact, he once found a check with a stamp on the front and a stamp on the back. In this case, the check was taxed when it was written. When the payee endorsed the check, it became a receipt of payment and was taxed again.
Q: Could the tax be avoided if cash was used for the transaction?
A.: Mike explained that the tax could be avoided because in the case of bank checks, the tax was a fixed rate on the document and not on the transaction.
I found that in other instances, such as for a mortgage, the tax rate was based on the monetary value of the transaction.
Proprietary - These stamps were created for the purpose of paying a tax on goods, and the manufacturer, wholesaler or retailer was responsible for paying the tax and affixing the stamps. Examples of goods that required proprietary stamps are canned foods, matches, medicines, perfumes, and playing cards.
Q: The original Revenue Act of 1862, which introduced the use of adhesive revenue stamps in the United States, specifically refers to a tax on medicines, perfumery and cosmetics, and playing cards. As for medicines, I found that most were questionable as true pharmaceutical products (snake oils) and often contained cocaine and opium, which are now illegal drugs. Was the targeting of these items our nation's first venture into luxury and "sin" taxes?
A: Mike said that although some nonessential items were taxed, the majority of goods were everyday staples. The United States desperately needed money to finance the Union cause in the Civil War and then-President Abraham Lincoln was ruthless in imposing taxes on a wide range of items.
Indeed, through an Internet search, I found a source that described a near rampage to unearth items, services, etc., to tax. David A. Wells, appointed chairman of the U.S. Revenue Commission in 1865 wrote that Congress was guided by the principle, "when-ever you find an article, a product, a trade, a profession, or a source of income, tax it!"*
Variety of revenue stamps
Special-category revenues - In addition to the general documentary and proprietary revenues, stamps were also produced for many special categories. Some of these categories found in the Scott Catalogue of U. S. Stamps & Covers include:
Boating registration fees
Future delivery contracts
Migratory waterfowl hunting
New York Customs House fees
Revenue stamp specialists advise that the current Scott listings are just the tip of the iceberg, and more special-category stamps are being added each year as catalogs are updated. Just a few new categories that we might expect to see in the future are:
Federal, state, and local government stamps - In addition to the federal government, all 50 of our states have also issued revenue stamps at one time or another. Cigarettes and alcoholic beverages are perhaps the two most widely taxed areas for which states have issued stamps. Local governments (counties and cities) have produced revenue stamps, too. For instance, in the 1950s and 1960s, municipalities in Pennsylvania issued thousands of different real estate tax stamps. Manufacturer-produced stamps - These stamps are known as private die proprietary issues and further expand the material available for revenue stamp collecting. Although most revenue stamps were issued by a government agency, there have been periods of time when the government could not (or chose not to) supply stamps. In those cases, businesses were authorized to produce stamps or labels of their own.
Embossed revenue paper - The field of revenues also includes embossed revenue paper, which predates documentary adhesive stamps. The embossments impressed on various documents were colorless, resembling a notary public's seal.
Revenue stamped paper - A number of different types of revenue stamps were printed or ink-stamped directly onto a variety of legal forms. Bank checks were the most common form of revenue stamped paper.
Revenue stamps as a tax collecting system It's generally agreed that the first adhesive revenue stamps appeared in 1854 on Austrian issues of Lombardy-Venetia. The imprinting or embossing of revenue stamps on documents, however, predates adhesive postage stamps by at least 200 years.
Q: The concept of using stamps for the purpose of showing proof of payment of a tax or fee for anything other than postage seems rather strange in this day and age. How did the idea of revenue stamps get to the United States?
A: Mike said that England had revenue stamps long before it imposed the Stamp Act of 1765 on the American colonies. He recalled seeing one in the form of a royal seal entwined with a purple ribbon that was attached to an apprenticeship indenture document.
Q: My research revealed that government officials advocated that the use of stamps as proof of a tax payment was simple, collection of funds was relatively easy, and enforcement of the tax law was uncomplicated. It seems to me, though, that a lot of extra labor would be required to affix the proprietary stamps to all those items. Wouldn't it have been simpler to just write out a receipt for the tax payment, which would have also eliminated the need for designing and printing the stamps?
A: Mike responded that the use of stamps helped prevent collusion between the manufacturers of goods and those who were collecting taxes on behalf of the government. Even so, stamps figured in the worst of frauds of the Ulysses Grant administration. The "whiskey ring" conspiracy bilked the government out of an estimated $1.65 million, with forged stamps and fraudulent tax returns.
Q: Were stamps perhaps used to facilitate bookkeeping at a time when the needed technology of automation was not available?
A: Mike noted that it wasn't only a matter of bookkeeping. The presence of a stamp also certified the legitimacy of a document or product sold.
I learned that when it came to documents, failure to affix the stamp resulted in a fine and invalidated the transaction.
2001 Specialized Catalogue of U.S. Stamps & Covers, Scott Publishing Co., Sidney, OH, 2000.
*Fox, Cynthia G. "Income Tax Records of the Civil War Years." Prologue: Journal of the National Archives, National Archives and Records Admin., Vol. 18, No. 4, Winter 1986. <www.nara.gov/ publications/prologue/fox.html. >
Giroux, Gary and Johns, Sharon. "Financing the Civil War: the Office of Internal Revenue and the Use of Revenue Stamps." Dept. of Accounting, Texas A&M Univ., April 2000. <www.acct.tamu.edu/girous/ financingcivil.htm >
Lesher, Ronald E. "A Guide to U.S. Revenues." Stamp Collector, Special Supplement No. 1.
Lesher, Ron. "What are revenues." Revenue Review, Scott Stamp Monthly, March 2001.
Lesher, Ron. "Revenue stamps serve many purposes." Revenue Review, Scott Stamp Monthly, May 2001.
Sicker, John. "Revenue, postage stamps similar in appearance, use." Collector's Workshop, Linn's Stamp News, May 25, 1987.
Kenneth A. Wood. This is Philately, Van Dahl Publications, Albany, OR, 1982, Vol. 3, pp. 730, 743-745.
U.S. REVENUES -
U.S. REVENUES -
What Inquiring Minds Might Want to Know: Part 2
By ATFP Editor Karen Weigt with comments from Mike Lybaraer. Badger Stamp Club
This is a continuation of what 1 learned from my study of U.S. revenue stamps. Part 1 appeared in the September 2001 issue of Across the Fence Post and includes an explanation for the Q-&-A format.
History of revenue stamps in the United States
Revenue stamps on this side of the Atlantic have been around for a long time. According to Ron Lesher, noted authority on this subject, the colony of Massachusetts established a stamp act in 1755 to help pay for the defense of its frontier; a year later the colony of New York instituted a similar stamp act. The state of Delaware had denominated stamps in 1793. And denominated U.S. federal revenue stamps have existed since at least 1794. These early issues, however, were in the form of embossed revenue stamped paper.
In 1857, California was the first governmental authority to issue adhesive revenue stamps in the United States. The state needed revenue to meet demands of the growing population brought about by the Gold Rush of 1849. California, therefore, enacted a tax on various documents: bills of lading, ex-changes, insurance, passage tickets and certificates for attorneys.
As discussed in Part 1 of this article, the first U.S. federal adhesive revenue stamps appeared in 1862 as a result of the Civil War Revenue Act. The act required that stamps be affixed to 23 different classes of documents (some having several subclasses) and three different types of proprietary articles.
The Scott Specialized Catalogue of U.S. Stamps & Covers lists "British Revenues for use in America" in its section devoted to embossed revenue stamped paper. These 1765 Stamp Act issues were intended for almanacs, pamphlets and newspapers, playing cards and general use. They were the very stamps that created the "taxation without representation" uproar among colonists and became one of the triggers of the American Revolution. Revenue stamp agents were attacked by mobs and their property destroyed. In fact, none of the colonists would accept the unpopular position of stamp agent. Consequently, few were ever used.
Q: It appears that revenue stamps were ployed by the various governmental authorities issuing the stamps. What kind of people served as agents? Did they actually sell the stamps to those who were required to use them? Were they also responsible for enforcing the revenue stamp laws?
A: Mike Lybarger explained that stamp agents were political patronage positions. They often were paid a portion of their sales as their salary, which provided an incentive for enforcing the stamp tax laws. A great example here was Chester A. Arthur, who was customs agent for the port of New York. Arthur was so good at getting money out of office holders that he was often greeted with the cry of "FAT! FAT! FAT!" by fellow stalwarts. "Frying the fat" was the term for patronage in those days.
My research turned up a bit more detail about how Revenue Act of 1862 tax stamps was disseminated. First, the mandatory use of documentary and proprietary stamps was widely publicized through newspapers and posted notices.
Finished stamps from the printer were delivered to a U.S. government stamp agent located in Philadelphia. This agent distributed the stamps to government revenue service collectors located in each of the Union's 185 collection districts. The collectors were responsible for further distribution and often sold documentary stamps to private agents, who sold the stamps directly to the public on a commission basis.
From 1866-72, stamps were also distributed to U.S. assistant treasurers located in large cities; national banks serving as designated federal depositories; and collectors of customs, who assumed responsibilities of further distribution either to local agents or through direct sale to the public.
While this system probably worked well in larger cities, one of my sources proposed that it must have been hard to find stamps in rural areas. The reason for this speculation stems from the low commission rates (2 percent to 5 percent, with higher rates for larger volumes), making it difficult to attract enough agents.
Most proprietary stamps were ordered directly by the manufacturers from the Bureau of Internal Revenue (now known as the Internal Revenue Service).
The mandatory use of various revenue stamps has come and gone throughout the years. In many instances, temporary usage laws were instituted during periods of war to produce additional income for financing these endeavors.
I welcome reader input as to how the U.S. federal documentary stamps were distributed for use in more recent years. A glance through the Scott catalog seems to indicate their usage was more continuous and long-standing than other revenues and wasn't discontinued until December 31, 1967.
Although my mother (now 84 years old) vaguely recalls seeing revenue stamps on various documents such as my parents' home mortgage papers, she can't remember who had the stamps and who affixed them.
I have the same question with regard to stock transfer stamps introduced in 1918 and used until 1952. .
Inquiring minds want to know...
2001 Scott Specialized Catalogue of U.S. Stamps & Covers, Scott Publishing Co., Sidney, OH, 2000.
Giroux, Gary and Johns, Sharon. "Financing the Civil War: the Office of Internal Revenue and the Use of Revenue Stamps." Dept. of Accounting, Texas A&M Univ., April 2000. <www.acct.tamu.edu/ girous/financingcivil.htm >
Lesher, Ron. "What are revenues." Revenue Review, Scott Stamp Monthly, March 2001.
U.S. REVENUES -
U.S. REVENUES -
What Inquiring Minds Might Want to Know: Part 3
By ATFP Editor Karen Weigt with comments from Mike Lybarper, Badaer Stamo Club
Parts 1 and 2 appeared in the September and October 2001 issues of Across the Fence Post. Part 1 includes an explanation for the Q-&-A format.
History of taxation in the United States
The British government had imposed taxes on the colonies. Some of the colonies imposed taxes on their citizens as well. When the United States claimed its independence, money to run the government had primarily come from tariffs on imported goods and from the sale of public lands. An income tax, however, was imposed in 1861 to help finance the Civil War.
Q: What was the law that introduced an income tax in the United States?
A: Mike replied that the income tax was a part of the tax law approved on August 5, 1861. The entire measure was considered as temporary because the Civil War was thought to be brief.
I found that the 1861 income tax law was rather limited and in the form of a direct tax of $20 million apportioned among the states. Each state was responsible for collection.
More federal taxation was instituted in 1862. The Revenue Act of 1862, signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln, expanded the income tax. Additionally, many goods and services were taxed, and documents of all kinds had to bear revenue stamps.
As for the income tax, the rate levied on individuals was three percent per annum on incomes between $600 and $10,000. Above $10,000, the tax rose to five per cent. This was considered a "progressive" or "ability-to-pay" tax. To put it in perspective, in 1862, the average rent on a six-room house in Maryland was $10 a month. Income tax rates were increased in 1864 and then began to decrease in 1866.
To facilitate the collection of taxes, the precursor of the Internal Revenue Service was born. Salmon P. Chase, secretary of the treasury, appointed George S. Boutwell as the first commissioner of internal revenue.
Chase's portrait appears on the $1,000 denomination of various revenue stamps issued from 1940 to 1958.
Q: Was our nation's first income tax ever repealed after the Civil War?
A: Mike said the tax was permitted to lapse in 1872, along with many other elements of Lincoln's Civil War fiscal measures. He added that the tax likely was thought to be unconstitutional for a good deal of post-Civil War America. Furthermore, Congress did not consider for the most part the people of the United States as "cash cows."
Q: Tax on individual incomes had been collected throughout the years 1862-72. Why then was the 16th Amendment to the Constitution (ratified in 1913) needed to establish the legality of a federally imposed income tax?
A: According to Mike, in the 1890s, the Populist Party attempted to revive the income tax, but the U.S. Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional. This was a reversal of an earlier decision that validated the Civil War taxes on dividends, real estate, inheritances, and income.
The matter of an income tax reappeared in the election of 1912, when it was part of both the Democratic and Progressive Party platforms. This prompted the passing of the 16th Amendment.
OK, I know I've strayed from stamps, but the history of revenue stamps is eminently tied to the tax act that also led to the origin of our annual 1040 forms. Furthermore, although revenue stamp use is no longer prevalent, the practice of collecting the taxes they represented inherently remains. The tax is either a part of income reported on our 1040s and its multitude of schedules, or has taken on another label.
Take, for instance, our current tax on alcohol and tobacco. This "excise" tax used to be collected through proprietary revenue stamps. I suspect that silver tax stamps, a type of documentary revenue, represented our current capital gains tax.
Taxation in general
All governments - local, state and federal - need funds to provide services to their citizens, and those funds mainly come from fees and taxes. Beyond a need for funds are underlying reasons for the choices of what is taxed and how the tax is collected.
A case in point is today's high rate of taxation on tobacco products, partially implemented to alter behavior. Various income tax rates and deductions can be defined as social engineering. An example is the recently debated so-called marriage penalty tax. To stimulate the economy, Congress agreed to issue rebate checks in conjunction with the 2001 income tax rate reduction package.
Some taxes are imposed as a matter of political power and ideology, and yet others as a means of law enforcement.
Wisconsin's drug tax stamp law falls into the law enforcement category. The 1990 law required dealers of cocaine, marijuana, LSD or hallucinogenic mushrooms to buy stamps from the state Department of Revenue and display them on their drugs. It's obvious that compliance with the law would expose illegal activity to government agents. The law was repealed in 1997 when the Wisconsin Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional.
Another aid to law enforcement is the current federal tax associated with certain classes of firearms. Depending on the type of firearm, payment of this tax is represented by either a $5 or a $200 firearms transfer revenue stamp.
Revenue stamp collector Gregg Greenwald of Marshfield, WI, explained that the tax was initiated in 1934 to help combat the organized crime that had developed during the Prohibition era. The meat of the legislation requires that anyone who makes or owns a firearm defined as a short or sawed-off shotgun or rifle, a machine gun, or a "destructive device" (bomb, flame-thrower, etc.) must ensure that the item is registered with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. Registration, of course, is taxed, with proof of payment in the form of a firearms transfer stamp affixed to the registration form.
While at STAMPSHOW in Chicago this past August, I bought a $200 firearms transfer stamp on document. The document shows that John Doe of Fort Wayne, IN, wished to take possession of a machine gun purchased from a local gun shop. To accomplish the transfer, the seller had to provide the appropriate paperwork and tax payment to the BATE
One side of the BATF form includes Doe's full name and address plus a detailed description of the firearm and its serial number. The reverse side includes Doe's photo and the reason why he wants the machine gun. In the space provided, he wrote, "add to personal collection." He then signed a preprinted statement that possession of the weapon wouldn't place him in violation of any laws. The form was also signed by the chief of the Fort Wayne Police Department to certify that Doe's possession of the machine gun does not violate any state or local law. It further affirms that there's no evidence Doe might use the gun for any unlawful purpose.
Two copies of the form, a set of Mr. Doe's fingerprints and $200 were submitted to the National Firearms Act Branch of the BATF, in Washington, DC. Upon approval of the machine gun transfer from the seller to Mr. Doe, the original copy of the registration form was signed by a BATF examiner. The same examiner affixed the firearms transfer stamp to the form and canceled it with his initials and date of approval. In this instance, the date was June 27, 1983, a little over three months after it had been received at the BATF office.
The signed form was returned to the seller who then turned it and the machine gun over to Mr. Doe. Today, Mr. Doe would not have gotten his gun because as of May 19, 1986, the law was changed to forbid the transfer of this type of firearm to any individual.
In discussing this document with Mike Lybarger, he referred to the incident in 1992 when Randy Weaver's cabin at Ruby Ridge, ID, was stormed by ATF agents, killing Weaver's wife and son. Weaver's principal crime occurred when he cut off the barrels of a couple of shotguns. This classified him as a "maker" of weapons that had not been properly registered with the BATE
Revenue stamps and postage stamp collecting
U.S. revenue stamps are not a product of the Post Office Department nor its successor, the U.S. Postal Service. Their basic purpose, nevertheless, is akin to that of a postage stamp: a proof of payment of a fee or service. And since revenue stamps predate postage stamps, it could be said that revenue stamp collecting represents the real grass roots of philately.
Due to the flood of new issues in recent years, many postage stamp collectors have decided to limit their acquisitions to the classic issues. Revenue stamp collecting offers another option to new-issue concerns. Their usage has drastically declined since the 1960s and, to date, there are only two categories of U.S. revenue stamps that are still in use: the previously discussed firearms transfer stamp and the duck or migratory bird hunting and conservation stamp, the latter issued for payment of a fee rather than a tax.
Unlike earlier years, neither of these two stamps are administered by the Internal Revenue Service. The firearms transfer stamp is handled by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms; the duck stamp is issued through the U.S. Department of the Interior.
I'm not sure why a stamp is still required for proof of tax payment for transfer of certain classes of firearms. It's fairly well agreed that duck stamps are still issued in conjunction with a hunting license because they are popular with stamp collectors and serve as a fund-raiser. So popular, in fact, that collectors can purchase the stamps independent of the hunting license application from post offices around the country. Revenue collected from duck stamp sales goes toward maintenance of wetland habitats. My recent study of revenue stamps produced a profound respect for this specialty. I found the topic to be most intriguing It provided a wealth of information associated with our nation's history; a peek into products, services and lifestyles of the past; and a revelation in the field of taxation.
Revenue stamps on document show the stories of the ordinary rather than extraordinary people depicted on postage stamps. I find it interesting to contemplate how Mr. Doe's machine gun registration form got into the hands of a stamp dealer. Since taxes are tied to almost every aspect of our lives, I find it interesting to study tax laws and reasons for the laws.
As mentioned in Part 1, this series is a prelude to Gregg Greenwald's article on U.S. first-issue revenue stamps that will appear in the January and February 2002 issues of ATFP. Gregg's article addresses the varieties available for the specialist collector of this set which contains some of our country’s most beautiful stamps. •
Fox, Cynthia G. "Income Tax Records of the Civil War Years." Prologue: Journal of the National Archives, National Archives and Records Admin., Vol. 18, No. 4, Winter 1986. <www.nara.guvl publicationslprologue/fox.httnl >
Giroux, Gary and Johns, Sharon. "Financing the Civil War: the Office of Internal Revenue and the Use of Revenue Stamps." Dept. of Accounting, Texas A&M Univ., April 2000. < www.acct.tamu.rdu/ girous/financingcivil.htm >
"The National Firearms Act." Title 26, U.S. Internal Revenue Code, Chapter 53.
< www.atf.trcas.gov/pub/fire-rxplu-pub/ nfa.hnn >
Spence, Grrry. "First They Came For The Fascists..." <www.wco.coml-altaf/ fascist. html >
"Summary of Gun Control Act of 1968." Federal Firearms Laws.
< www.nraila.org/media!miscl Federal Firearms. htm >
Wisconsin Supreme Court. "Drug tax stamps unconstitutional." Lacrosse Tribune, Saturday, January 25, 1997, p. B5.
< www.druglibrary.orglolsenlnorml STAMPS/lacrosse.html >
Wolfeld, Richard S. "Presentation album has U.S. revenue proofs." Lirrn's Strrnrp News, June 24, 1996.
New WFSC Website -- http://www.folklib.net/wfsc/
(03-24-2002: moved to http://www.WFSCstamps.org/)
Thanks to Doug Henkle, of Oshkosh, WI, the
WFSC is on its way to having a full-fledged website. Since 1998, we've had a
site through the American Philatelic Society's Chapter Activities Committee.
Because it was managed by a third-party APS volunteer, we kept it down to a
minimum of information and requested updates only twice a year.
Doug began work on the new WFSC site in mid-October and he's been adding more material each week as time allows. As the site grows, so does our ability to promote philately and our member clubs.
The current situation is that Doug is temporarily serving as our Webmaster. He's also allowing space for us at his personal domain ( http://www.folklib.net/) that indexes information on the Web related to acoustic music, with a special emphasis on local Wisconsin musicians.
The ideal near-future scenario is:
Doug will get all pertinent WFSC information posted at the site with appropriate hypertext and linking options.
The WFSC will register its own domain and choose a commercial "Domain Hosting" site to which the pages will be moved.
A volunteer will step forward to take over the handling of site updates.
[Webmaster's note: since the above was written, I have volunteered to stay on as Webmaster until 12-31-2002, subject to the Board's approval at their January meeting. However, as you can see, this site is very text intensive. I could really use some help from someone who has graphical skills, website design skills, and/or the ability to create a more pleasing look to the site while still maintaining all Priority 1, 2 and 3 Web Accessibility standards. 4-26-2003: Turned over all Webmaster duties to Jay Bigalke.]
Advantages of obtaining our own domain are to: (1) establish a URL (site
address) more easily found by the philatelic community; and (2) acquire enough
space to further expand the site, most notably by posting graphics of our
first-day covers that are still available for purchase. Notwithstanding is the
matter of freeing up space at Doug's domain that he needs in future years for
his own purposes.
Maintaining our own domain involves some fixed expenses that Doug will explain to the WFSC Executive Board at its January meeting. In the meantime, the Finance Committee is conferring to determine an amount that the WFSC could possibly devote to a permanent website.
The WFSC very much appreciates Doug's efforts in getting us established on the Web, especially since he's currently in the midst of a philatelic sabbatical while pursuing other interests. Doug, however, has maintained his philatelic memberships, which include the Oshkosh Philatelic Society, Wisconsin Postal History Society, American First Day Cover Society and American Philatelic Research Library.
Many of us remember his past enthusiastic support of the hobby and numerous achievements that earned his 1982 induction into the Wisconsin Philatelic Hall of Fame. His major philatelic interest is first-day covers. His expertise in computer technology comes from his employment as Computer Consultant and Programmer at the University of Wisconsin Oshkosh since 1978, and maintainer of many of his job-related and personal Web pages since 1995.
Please notify any WFSC officer if you might be interested in the permanent position of WFSC Webmaster. If needed, Doug will provide tutoring for as long as it takes. We furthermore would like to have any potential volunteers attend the January 19 Executive Board meeting. Contact WFSC Secretary Karen Weigt for details. [See the Webmaster's note above.]
Web Publishing Permission Requested
Our new website allows us to post the WFSC
Show Calendar and Registry.
We'd like to include contact details for each event as published in ATFP
but we don't want to do this without the appropriate permission. (Note: We have
published post office box addresses on the Web.)
We need all event sponsors to contact: WFSC Secretary Karen Weigt, 4184 Rose Ct., Middleton, WI 53562-4339, or E-Mail firstname.lastname@example.org . Indicate in writing your permission to publish contact data on the Web. Be specific with regard to:
Latest update: June 12, 2005